New Efforts to Combat Identity Theft on E-Verify

USCIS has announced that the E-Verify program will help combat identity fraud by identifying and deterring fraudulent use of Social Security Numbers (SSNs) for employment eligibility verification.

New Algorithm to Identify Identity Fraud

The new algorithm detects and prevents potential fraudulent use of SSNs to gain work authorization. An employer, for example, may enter information into E-Verify that appears valid – such as a matching name, date of birth, and SSN – but was in fact stolen, borrowed or purchased from another individual. With this new programming, USCIS can now lock a SSN that appears to have been misused, so that it cannot be used by another individual other than the owner of the social security number.

When a social security number is identified as ‘stolen’ by the E-verify system, USCIS may now lock SSNs in E-Verify that appear to have been used fraudulently. To accomplish this step, USCIS says it uses a combination of algorithms, detection reports and analysis to identify patterns of fraudulent SSN use and then lock the number in E-Verify.

The Process

If an employee attempts to use a locked SSN, E-Verify will generate a “Tentative Nonconfirmation” (TNC). The employee receiving the TNC will have the opportunity to contest the finding at a local Social Security Administration (SSA) field office. If an SSA field officer confirms the employee’s identity correctly matches the SSN, the TNC will be converted to “Employment Authorized” status in E-Verify.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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E-Verify returns!

E-Verify has resumed operations following the federal government shutdown. All E-Verify features and services are now available.

Information for Employers

Form I-9
The Form I-9 requirements were not affected during the federal government shutdown. All employers were required to complete and retain a Form I-9 for every person hired to work for pay in the US during the shutdown.

E-Verify
Employees who received a Tentative Nonconfirmation (TNC):
If an employee had a TNC referred between September 17, 2013 and September 30, 2013, and was not able to resolve the TNC due to the federal government shutdown, employers must add 12 federal business days to the date printed on the ‘Referral Letter’ or ‘Referral Date Confirmation’. Employees have until this new date to contact the Social Security Administration (SSA) or the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to resolve their cases. If employers have an employee who decided to contest his or her TNC while E-Verify was unavailable, an employer should now initiate the referral process in E-Verify. Employers may not take any adverse action against an employee because of a TNC.

Steps to take if an employee has received a SSA Final Nonconfirmation (FNC) or DHS No Show result:
If an employee received a Final Nonconfirmation (FNC) or No Show because of the federal government shutdown, please close the case and select “The employee continues to work for the employer after receiving a Final Nonconfirmation result,” or “The employee continues to work for the employer after receiving a No Show result.” The employer must then enter a new case in E-Verify for that employee. These steps are necessary to ensure the employee is afforded the opportunity to timely contest and resolve the Tentative Nonconfirmation (TNC) that led to the FNC result.

Creating Cases: Three-Day Rule
You must create an E-Verify case for each employee hired during or otherwise affected by the shutdown by November 5, 2013. If you are prompted to provide a reason why the case is late (i.e., does not conform to the three-day rule), select ‘Other’ from the drop-down list of reasons and enter ‘federal government shutdown’ in the field.

Federal Contractor Deadlines
During the federal government shutdown, federal contractors could not enroll or use E-Verify as required by the federal contractor rule. If your organization missed a deadline because E-Verify was unavailable, or if it has an upcoming deadline for complying with the federal contractor rule, please follow the instructions above and notify your contracting officer of these instructions.

Information For Employees

If the federal government shutdown prevented you from contesting a Tentative Nonconfirmation (TNC), you will be allowed additional time to contact the Social Security Administration (SSA) or Department of Homeland Security (DHS). If your TNC was referred between September 17, 2013 and September 30, 2013, and you were not able to resolve the mismatch due to the federal government shutdown, you should:

  • Add 12 federal business days to the date printed on the ‘Referral Letter’ or ‘Referral Date Confirmation’ that your employer gave you after you contested the TNC. Federal business days are Monday through Friday, and do not include federal holidays.
  • Contact SSA or DHS by the new date to resolve your TNC.
  • If you received a Final Non-Confirmation (FNC) because you could not contact DHS or SSA during the federal government shutdown, or because you could not contact DHS or SSA in the first ten days after the government reopened, please contact your employer and request that the employer re-enter your query. For more information about contesting your TNC or FNC, please refer to Employee section of the E-Verify website.

Customer Support

E-Verify Customer Support expects an increase in requests for assistance. Due to this increase, customers may experience longer than normal delays and response times. We apologize for any inconvenience and appreciate your patience.

For any questions or additional information about how the federal shutdown affects E-Verify, please email E-Verify@dhs.gov. For questions about Form I-9, please visit I-9 Central or email I-9Central@dhs.gov. Employers and employees may also contact E-Verify at 888-464-4218. Customer Support representatives are available Monday through Friday 8:00 am to 5:00 pm local time.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Employment Practices that Could Lead to Immigration Discrimination, Pt. 2

The Office of Special Counsel (OSC)‘s job is to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), which disallows employment-related anti-discrimination based on immigration and citizenship status, and nationality. I previously wrote about OSC’s responses to some employers’ questions on unfair employment practices, such as an employee presenting either invalid or fraudulent documents. OSC also answers immigration-related questions posed by law firms’, pertaining to law firm clients.

If, for example, a general contractor, is hiring out to a subcontractor, and then requires the subcontractor’s employees to again produce original documents — such as a passport or driver’s license — that were already presented during the hiring process and upon completion of a Form I-9 by the subcontractor, then a host of problems can present themselves:

  1. The original documents have expired and the employee has obtained a new version of those documents;
  2. The employee’s immigration status has changed, and thus has different documents to prove work authorization; and
  3. The original documents have been stolen or lost.

This could all amount to a claim by the employees that the general contractor was discriminating against them due to their citizenship or immigration status. Employees could also maintain that they are discriminated against in this case: An employer, who is an E-Verify user, hires a private vendor to disseminate paychecks, also giving the vendor access to Forms I-9. The vendor is authorized to examine the Forms I-9 in order to confirm the identities of employees, who the employer wants to pay.

What could easily happen is that, because the vendor didn’t see the employees’ original documents, he/she inquires about the adequacy of the documents that were initially presented to the employer for I-9 purposes. If the employer feels persuaded to ask his/her employees for further documentation, such a request might be perceived as document abuse, which violates the anti-discrimination provision of the INA. OSC found that the INA was not applicable in either circumstance.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Government Shutdown Affects Employers with Foreign Workers

We sent an alert to our clients a couple of days ago when we felt that the Federal Government shutdown was imminent. We didn’t really expect it to happen but it did! The shutdown is unfortunately affecting US immigration services, so writing about action to be taken or postponed for pending immigration applications became imperative.

The websites of the US Department of Labor (US DOL) are no longer functional because it is considered a non-essential service. For employers, this means that if there is a current or potential employee who has to start, extend or transfer to a new employer, the employer will not be able to file a labor condition application for an H1B visa. The implication is that no application for the H1B visa can be filed with USCIS because that application has to be supported by a certified labor condition application (LCA). In the past, when there was a prolonged outage of the US DOL website, USCIS allowed employers to file with uncertified LCAs. We hope this happens with this shutdown, if it is prolonged.

For employees whose cases are pending audit on a PERM case; or if a prevailing wage determination or Form 9089 (PERM application) is either to be filed, or has been filed or is pending with the US DOL, no action will be issued by the agency until the shutdown has been terminated.

USCIS is functional because it is a fee-for-service agency. Biometrics collection is used for many immigrant applications, as well as for re-entry permits required for multinational employees who have a green card through employment but are currently stationed overseas. Biometric services for employees are also still being collected.

US Department of State consulates are currently functional, processing visa stamps and interviews. These services are supported by a mix of fees and federal budget allocation: if the shutdown is prolonged, or if there is a budgetary crisis, then there may be a suspension of services at the consulates for both US citizens and non-citizen consular services. The budgetary crisis could impact both employment-based and other categories of visa issuance, including visitor and business visas. If business travelers want to attend or plan to attend meetings and conferences in the US, please plan to obtain a visa while consular services are still available.

The Social Security Administration is open with limited service; issue of Social Security cards has been suspended. Hence, new visa-based employees will be unable to obtain new social security numbers, which could impact I-9 forms. Although collection of social security numbers is optional, if the employer is an E-verify employer, the employer is required to collect a social security number for work authorization verification. Certain federal and state contractors are also mandated to collect this information. To alleviate this problem, the 3-day rule for E-verify is suspended for those cases affected by the shutdown. Employers may not take adverse action against employees because of the employee’s E-verify interim status.

Wage payments to some new non-immigrants may be a problem because of the non-availability of the social security number. New J non-immigrant visa holders who cannot obtain social security numbers should approach their sponsoring agency for direction.

E-verify is unavailable during the shutdown. Consequently, USCIS, which administers the program, will not be issuing non-confirmation letters (TNC), and employers will be unable to verify work authorization of new employees. Current time to process TNCs has been extended; but the obligation to collect, maintain and process Form I-9 continues as an employer mandate.

Border security is an essential service – there will be no shutdown of services at the border, but travelers are expected to face slowdowns in screening and higher security.

US Passport services, which are a fee-for-service program, are not affected by the slowdown. Of course the severity of the impact will depend on the length of the shutdown. We will post updates as they become available.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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E-Verify & Comprehensive Immigration Reform

Another new component to immigration reform Senate Bill 744, “The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act”, is coming out of the woodwork. The new legislation calls for an extended, nationwide computer network of driver’s license photographs and biographic information of US citizens, run by DHS’s USCIS.

Seven percent of US employers use a similar network, the DHS-run system E-Verify, which helps USCIS to validate identity and legal status of new hires. The broadened network comes from the need to further prevent fraud during the hiring process, by allowing employers to re-verify any photographic or biographic identification presented by new workers. The system would ultimately make it more difficult for illegal immigrants to secure jobs in the US.

E-Verify isn’t mandatory in all states: those US employers who utilize the system, do so voluntarily. If the new immigration bill passes, then E-Verify will have to undergo significant expansions, obligating all employers to send new employee — both foreigners and citizens — information to the system, in order to prove work eligibility.

Many fear that a nationwide computer network will be akin to a national ID system, allowing the government to keep tabs on its citizens. Another fear is that an expanded system would be available to other federal agencies, such as TSA or FBI, which would mainly use it to find suspects.

The federal government assures us that E-Verify doesn’t maintain its own information — it instead taps into other systems to establish information; the information vanishes once the task is accomplished. However, privacy guidelines released by DHS affirm that E-Verify can, depending on the situation, “give law enforcement agencies extracts of information on potential fraud, discrimination or other illegal activities, which points to information gathering at some level and analysis of identity data.”

If passed, the Senate bill will present grants to the states that give DHS access to their driver’s license photo records, clarifying that such access wouldn’t breach federal privacy law. Mississippi is the only state that has given DHS admission to its motor vehicle database, but only for biographic information and not photographs.

The Senate bill does not directly forbid DHS, or any other government agency, from using the information for anything other than work authorization, unlike the law that administers the census.

The Takeaway

E-verify is very likely to become mandatory for all employers, as it is supported by The Chamber of Commerce and employers. The issue of misuse of sensitive and private  information has been enhanced by the leaks of NSA surveillance methods; clearly these dangers need to be balanced with the needs for a workplace security.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Facts About Immigrants in Missouri

In 1990, the percentage of foreign-born in Missouri was only 1.6%; since then, Missouri’s cultural makeup has changed drastically to include large amounts of Latinos, Asians and other immigrant populations. Missouri’s current foreign-born population is 4%; 41.6% of “New Americans” in Missouri have become naturalized citizens who can vote. About 5% of Missouri’s ‘New Americans’ are either Latino or Asian.

These New Americans also contribute economically to Missouri as business owners, workers, professionals, tax-payers and consumers. Together, Latinos and Asians possess $9.8 billion in consumer purchasing power — their businesses make $5.1 billion and employ 34,000 people. Foreign students also enrich the community: Missouri’s total of 16,061 foreign students contribute $417.9 million to the state’s economy.

A little bit of food for thought: if Missouri’s unauthorized immigrants — which total 1.3% of our workforce — were deported from the state, we would lose $2.3 billion in economic activity and roughly 13,859 jobs.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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Why Is I-94 so important?

Form I-94 and its Uses

This piece of paper that measures 4×5 inches is how a non-immigrant visa (NIV) holder proves that he or she has exited the country. Clients often call us because they were told when they re-entered the US that they did not surrender their Form I-94 on exit. The paper is also very important to international students because it shows that they are here for the duration of the status of their visa — i.e. they do not have to exit until their program is over, and this stay could, under the right circumstances, exceed the length of their stamped visa. The I-94 is also used for Form I-9 purposes, to record the foreign passport, visa and I-94 number, and serves as a List A document for purposes of worker identity and work authorization. No other document needs to be produced by the worker as eligibility to work, which protects both the employer and employee.

Now with the electronic I-94, the apple cart has been tipped! Years of procedure and practice are to be replaced by a new process that State DMVs, federal agencies and employers need to learn. Software has to be amended to accept electronic I-94 cards.  The good news is that a duplicate I-94 can be printed as long as the NIV is in the US; the I-94 record disappears as soon as the NIV exits the US.

Form I-102 should still be used to correct mistakes in the record (filing fee $330); however, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) should be contacted in case of mistakes in the I-94 passport stamp. If CBP issued you Form I-94, I-94W, or I-95 with incorrect information (ex: misspelled name, incorrect date of birth, visa classification or date of admission), you should not file Form I-102. You will need to go in person to the nearest CBP port of entry (POE), or the nearest CBP deferred inspection office (DIO), to have the information corrected. For locations and hours of operation, visit CBP’s website at www.cbp.gov.

If you would like more information, please read my overview of electronic I-94.

More resources:
FAQ on what to enter to retrieve an I-94
How to obtain a copy of the new I-94
ICE I-94 Fact Sheet

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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CBP Announces Electronic Form I-94 Arrival/Departure Record

Form I-94 is the main way in which persons who are not US citizens, and who are not legal permanent residents, demonstrate their legal entry into the US. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) have announced the digital automation of Form I-94 Arrival/Departure, which will standardize travelers’ arrival and inspection processes, and ultimately lower costs and travelers’ wait time. Currently, CBP does not have a fail-safe method of keeping track of non-immigrant departures — an electronic I-94 could eliminate this loophole.

In late March, CBP published an interim final rule to the Federal Register, which redefines the definition of Form I-94 to include the electronic format and will be effective on April 26, 2013. Non-immigrants, who enter the US by air or sea will not have to submit paper Forms I-94.  But those who are subject to secondary inspection and asylees, refugees and parolees, will be required have to submit a paper form given to them by a Customs and Border Patrol officer. Travelers who enter through land border ports of entry will receive paper versions of Form I-94.

CBP will maintain I-94 records for all travelers who require one, but all records will instead be entered into the system in an electronic format and not given to the traveler. CBP will scan the traveler’s passport, creating an electronic arrival record for that person. Travelers will receive a CBP admission stamp on their travel documents, which detail the date and class of admission, and the admitted-until date. Departures will also be recorded electronically — if the traveler has a paper I-94, then he/she must surrender it upon leaving the US.

Some agencies will require a paper copy of Form I-94. USCIS will ask applicants to fill out paper copies when requesting particular benefits; and the State Department of Motor Vehicles (DMVs) will ask for paper copy submissions. In addition, non-immigrants with work authorization can present paper copies of Form I-94 to their employers during the Form I-9 process. If a traveler needs a paper copy of Form I-94, it will be available at www.cbp.gov/I94.

The Takeaway

Since this program is very new, we can expect confusion from all corners for a while, and differences in enforcement and paper documentation requirements from agencies. If you are a non-citizen, who is not a permanent resident, you will not receive a paper I-94 form from CBP as you enter the US, if you come by air or by sea. You will continue to receive a paper I-94 if you come by land from Canada or Mexico, if you require a secondary inspection, or you are a refugee or asylee. The problem is that USCIS and individual state-run agencies, such as drivers licence bureaus, will continue to require the now defunct I-94 form. In addition, it will become important to log onto the CBP website to ascertain that all your details on the electronic record are correct, and to print out a copy for your non-immigrant record. The electronic record will be erased from the system on departure from the US — maintaining a paper copy to prove departure may be useful under these new circumstances.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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H1B cap has reached!

USCIS received 124,000 H1B visa applications from Monday April 1, 2013 to Friday April 5, 2013 — the cap has not been filled this fast for about 4 years. The number of applications received includes both cap subject bachelor degree holders and US Master Degree holders for whom a special 20,000 visas are allotted.

US Master degree holders get two bites of the apple, when it comes to ‘cap’ time. All US Master degree applications not counted towards the 20,000 cap will be considered again in the regular cap of 65,000 visas. Master degree applications are subject to the lottery first, before the bachelor degree holders. Please keep in mind also that this 65,000 number is reduced by 5,800 visas set aside for Chile and Singapore, under Free Trade Treaties that the US has signed with these countries. The unused visas from this ‘carve out’ is added back to the general pool of available cap subject visas.

USCIS announced that it conducted a lottery to allot visas using a computer generated selection process on Sunday, April 7, 2013. All those applications not selected will be returned to the employers or attorneys. Of course, the return process may not occur for a while, as applications are vetted for accuracy and correct application fees. Application fees will be returned with the applications if the package is not selected in the lottery.

H1B applications filed with premium processing will be processed in 15 days, if they are selected in the lottery.

No more applications will be accepted by USCIS, but H1B applications to change employers, or extension of visa applications filed by non-profit employers and concurrent H1B employment, can still be filed with USCIS.

The Takeaway

Contact your Senator and Congressional representative to encourage an increase in the number of visas available for H1B visas. H1B visas filed by entrepreneurs are also subject to the cap. Entrepreneurs are employment multipliers for the U.S. economy.

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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2014 H1B Cap Might Hit in the First Week

Speculation about the H1B visa cap has been all-consuming in the business community. For 2014, USCIS has stated that all 65,000 H1B visas, and 20,000 H1B visas reserved for US Masters degree holders, would be finished in the first 5 days of filing from April 1 (Monday) to April 5 (Friday).

USCIS also stated that it would monitor the number of petitions received and notify the public of the date on which the numerical limit of the H-1B cap had been met, which is called the final receipt date. If USCIS receives more than 85,000 visa application petitions (regular and cap visas, disregarding the carve-outs for Singapore and Chile under Free Trade Agreements signed by the US with those countries), USCIS will use a lottery system to randomly select the number of petitions required to reach the limit of 85,000 visas.

USCIS will reject petitions that are subject to the cap and are not selected. USCIS will also reject any petitions that are received after the necessary number of petitions needed to meet the cap are filled. The last time USCIS conducted a lottery for the H-1B cap was in April of 2008.

The Consequences

Pronouncements like this have led to a frantic need to file on the first day, so that the cap is not missed. The problem is that this artificial season does not necessarily meet the hiring cycles for US business and employers. In other words, US business employment practices are artificially constrained by the necessity to tailor employment hiring practices to coincide with a start on April 1. Depending on the industry, employers hire throughout the year, varying with the ebbs and flow of business.

The Takeaway

Immigration reform proposed by the 8 Senators has a more realistic view of the business world — i.e. releasing visas as the demand grows, in a stepped up basis. Now that we are talking about the ‘reality’ on the ground for employers and business, could we have a more realistic PERM labor system? I know, if wishes were horses…. But I can dream the immigration dream, can’t I?

See you in my next blog.

Nalini S Mahadevan, JD, MBA
Immigration Attorney
Lowenbaum Partnership, LLC
St. Louis, Missouri

The information is not meant to create a client-attorney relationship. This blog is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for legal advice. Situations may differ based on the facts.

Tara Mahadevan

Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.

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